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A triangle is the 2 simplex. The study of triangles is called trigonometry (plus the study of angles). Its Bowers acronym is "trig". It is also known as a pyrogon under the elemental naming scheme.

Types of Triangle

By Sides

Equilateral

When all of the angles and edges of a triangle are equal a triangle is equilateral. Each angle must have a measure of exactly 60 degrees.

Isosceles

When a triangle has two equal sides, it is isosceles. It must also have two equal angles.

Scalene

A triangle with three unique side lengths is known as a scalene triangle.

By Angles

Acute

A triangle with all three angles smaller than 90 degrees is called an acute triangle. All equilateral triangles are also acute triangles.

Right-Angled

A triangle with one right angle is a right-angled triangle. Their side lengths follow the equation $a^2 + b^2 = c^2$, where c is the edge length of the side opposite the right angle.

Obtuse

A triangle where at least one angle is greater than 90 degrees is called an obtuse triangle.

Special Cases

A triangle with more than one right angle is usually degenerate but can appear on the surface of a sphere. The same applies to a triangle with angles that sum to greater than 180 degrees, and to triangles that have an angle equal to 180 degrees.

Symbols

The triangle has three Dynkin type symbols:

• x3o (regular)
• ox&#x (isosceles)
• ooo&#x (scalene)

Structure and Sections

Sections

As seen from a vertex, a triangle starts as a point that expands into a line segment.

Hypervolumes

Formulas for a general triangle

If we let a, b, c be the sides of the triangle, and h be the higher perpendicular to side a, then we can obtain these formulae:

• Edge length = $a+b+c$
• Surface area = $\frac{1}{2}ah$

Subfacets

• Vertex radius: $\frac{\sqrt{3}{3}}l$
• Edge radius: $\frac{\sqrt{3}{6}}l$

Angles

• Vertex angle: 60º

Vertex coordinates

The simplest way to obtain vertex coordinates for an equilateral triangle is as a face of a 3D octahedron, thus yielding the coordinates as

• (1,0,0)
• (0,1,0)
• (0,0,1)

thus giving a triangle of size $\sqrt{2}$.

To obtain a triangle in the 2D plane with side 2, the coordinates are

• (±1,-√3/3)
• (0,2√3/3)

Notations

• Tapertopic notation: $1^1$

Related shapes

Dimensionality Negative One Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen ... Aleph null
Simplex

$\{3^{n-1}\}$

Null polytope

$\emptyset$

Point

$()$
$\mathbb{B}^0$

Line segment

$\{\}$
$\mathbb{B}^1$

Triangle

$\{3\}$

Tetrahedron

$\{3^2\}$

Pentachoron

$\{3^3\}$

Hexateron

$\{3^4\}$

Heptapeton

$\{3^5\}$

Octaexon

$\{3^6\}$

Enneazetton

$\{3^7\}$

Decayotton

$\{3^8\}$

Hendecaxennon

$\{3^9\}$

$\{3^{10}\}$

Tridecahendon

$\{3^{11}\}$

$\{3^{12}\}$

$\{3^{13}\}$

$\{3^{14}\}$

$\{3^{15}\}$

... Omegasimplex
Cross

$\{3^{n-2},4\}$

Square

$\{4\}$

Octahedron

$\{3, 4\}$

$\{3^2, 4\}$

Pentacross

$\{3^3, 4\}$

Hexacross

$\{3^4, 4\}$

Heptacross

$\{3^5, 4\}$

Octacross

$\{3^6, 4\}$

Enneacross

$\{3^7, 4\}$

Dekacross

$\{3^8, 4\}$

Hendekacross

$\{3^9, 4\}$

Dodekacross

$\{3^{10}, 4\}$

Tridekacross

$\{3^{11}, 4\}$

$\{3^{12}, 4\}$

$\{3^{13}, 4\}$

$\{3^{14}, 4\}$

... Omegacross
Hydrotopes

$\{3^{n-2}, 5\}$

Pentagon

$\{5\}$

Icosahedron

$\{3, 5\}$

Hexacosichoron

$\{3^2, 5\}$

Order-5 pentachoric tetracomb

$\{3^3, 5\}$

Order-5 hexateric pentacomb

$\{3^4, 5\}$

...
Hypercube

$\{4, 3^{n-2}\}$

Square

$\{4\}$

Cube

$\{4, 3\}$

Tesseract

$\{4, 3^2\}$

Penteract

$\{4, 3^3\}$

Hexeract

$\{4, 3^4\}$

Hepteract

$\{4, 3^5\}$

Octeract

$\{4, 3^6\}$

Enneract

$\{4, 3^7\}$

Dekeract

$\{4, 3^8\}$

Hendekeract

$\{4, 3^9\}$

Dodekeract

$\{4, 3^{10}\}$

Tridekeract

$\{4, 3^{11}\}$

$\{4, 3^{12}\}$

$\{4, 3^{13}\}$

$\{4, 3^{14}\}$

... Omegeract
Cosmotopes

$\{5, 3^{n-2}\}$

Pentagon

$\{5\}$

Dodecahedron

$\{5, 3\}$

Hecatonicosachoron

$\{5, 3^2\}$

Order-3 hecatonicosachoric tetracomb

$\{5, 3^3\}$

Order-3-3 hecatonicosachoric pentacomb

$\{5, 3^4\}$

...
Hyperball

$\mathbb B^n$

Disk

$\mathbb B^2$

Ball

$\mathbb B^3$

Gongol

$\mathbb B^4$

Pentorb

$\mathbb B^5$

Hexorb

$\mathbb B^6$

Heptorb

$\mathbb B^7$

Octorb

$\mathbb B^8$

Enneorb

$\mathbb B^9$

Dekorb

$\mathbb B^{10}$

Hendekorb

$\mathbb B^{11}$

Dodekorb

$\mathbb B^{12}$

Tridekorb

$\mathbb B^{13}$

$\mathbb B^{14}$

$\mathbb B^{15}$

$\mathbb B^{16}$

... Omegaball

$\mathbb B^{\aleph_0}$

Regular polygons $\{1\}$ $\{2\}$ $\{3\}$ $\{4\}$ $\{5\}$ $\{6\}$ $\{7\}$ $\{8\}$ $\{9\}$ $\{10\}$ $\{11\}$ $\{12\}$ $\{13\}$ $\{14\}$ $\{15\}$ $\{16\}$ ... $\{\infty\}$ $\{\frac{\pi i}{\lambda}\}$
$\{\frac{n}{1}\}$ Monogon Digon Triangle Square Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Enneagon Decagon Hendecagon Dodecagon Tridecagon Tetradecagon Pentadecagon Hexadecagon ... Apeirogon Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{2}\}$ N/A N/A Triangle (retrograde) Degenerate Pentagram Degenerate Heptagram Degenerate Enneagram Degenerate Small hendecagram Degenerate Small tridecagram Degenerate Small pentadecagram Degenerate ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{2\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{3}\}$ N/A N/A N/A Square (retrograde) Pentagram (retrograde) Degenerate Great heptagram Octagram Degenerate Decagram Hendecagram Degenerate Tridecagram Tetradecagram Degenerate Small hexadecagram ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{3\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{4}\}$ N/A N/A N/A N/A Pentagon (retrograde) Degenerate Great heptagram (retrograde) Degenerate Great enneagram Degenerate Great hendecagram Degenerate Medial tridecagram Degenerate Pentadecagram Degenerate ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{4\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{5}\}$ N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Hexagon (retrograde) Heptagram (retrograde) Octagram (retrograde) Great enneagram (retrograde) Degenerate Grand hendecagram Dodecagram Great tridecagram Great tetradecagram Degenerate Hexadecagram ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{5\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{6}\}$ N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Heptagon (retrograde) Degenerate Degenerate Degenerate Grand hendecagram (retrograde) Degenerate Grand tridecagram Degenerate Degenerate Degenerate ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{6\lambda}$-gon)
$\{\frac{n}{7}\}$ N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Octagon (retrograde) Enneagram (retrograde) Decagram (retrograde) Great hendecagram (retrograde) Dodecagram (retrograde) Grand tridecagram (retrograde) Degenerate Great pentadecagram Great hexadecagram ... N/A Pseudogon ($\frac{\pi i}{7\lambda}$-gon)
Regular
$t_0 \{3\}$
Rectified
$t_1 \{3\}$
Truncated
$t_{0,1} \{3\}$
Triangle Triangle Hexagon